[12] This Arab commander "Mo-yi" was identified by historian Friedrich Hirth as Muawiyah I (r. 661–680), the governor of Syria before becoming the Umayyad caliph. Konstans II (tiếng Hy Lạp: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II) (7 tháng 11, 630 – 15 tháng 9, 668), còn gọi là Konstantinos Râu (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), là Hoàng đế Đông La Mã từ năm 641 đến 668. Cartwright, Mark. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA) Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Thank you! Next, Crete, Kos, and Rhodes all fell to Arab raids in 654 CE. ... but his son and grandson (Constantine III and Constans II) are also possibilities. His subsequent moves in Calabria and Sardinia were marked by further strippings and request of tributes that enraged his Italian subjects. (1997). Related Content One theory even has it that the last member of the family- the disastrous Justinian II- came up with it. Learn how and when to remove this template message, JSTOR: The Last Consul: Basilius and His Diptych, JSTOR: The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius, A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. In 655 CE it did. Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. The emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation and came bearing gifts which included a gold pallium or cloth; then he promptly stripped the city of as much bronze he could find, spiriting away statues and even the bronze roof tiles of churches and the copper roofing of the Pantheon. He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Constans' sons Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius had been associated on the throne since the 650s. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. [12] The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e. The latter fell in battle against the army of Caliph Uthman, and the region remained a vassal state under the Caliphate until civil war broke out and imperial rule was again restored. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. p. 312. However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily. The former was the more serious as it was the richest province in the empire and the most important source of grain. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. In 658, with the eastern frontier under less pressure, Constans defeated the Slavs in the Balkans, temporarily reasserting some notion of Byzantine rule over them and resettled some of them in Anatolia (ca. Constans II uses the Muslim civil war to reorganise the Roman military in the East. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. In 659, Constans II signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. Cite This Work Pope Martin I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans' attempt to halt debates over it in the Lateran Council of 649. pp. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. territory in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constans_II&oldid=996059562, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 08:49. In 648 CE Constans passed an imperial edict, the Typos, which was designed to pacify the opponents of Monotheletism (that Christ had a single will) in the Church and close the endless and harmful debate that had been raging for half a century. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. The Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war which would last until 661 CE and divert their attention from further foreign conquests. 23-25;72-3. Not particularly popular (either at home or in Syracuse), subject to several rebellions, despised by half the Church and with too many failures on the battlefield, he would not be missed by many, but he had, at the very least, ensured there was still an empire to pass on to his successors. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Pseudo-Byzantine types. Now the Emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope. [13][verification needed] These histories also record that the Arabs (Da shi 大食) sent their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), to besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and forced the Byzantines to pay them tribute. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. Biography of Constans II (excerpt) Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. The Popes were keen to maintain their own ascendancy over Constantinople in deciding matters of dogma and Martin excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called "Constantine the Bearded" (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. A few months later, Valentinos was removed and killed by a lynch mob who favoured a properly royal ruler, the son of Constantine III, Flavius Heraclius, better known by his nickname Constans. On his way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with success. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. He also was the last emperor to become consul in 642, [1] [2] becoming the last Roman consul in history. In general most modern historians (e.g. However, the latter resisted and Constans withdrew to Naples. During the journey from Benevento to Naples, Constans II was defeated by Mitolas, Count of Capua, near Pugna. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981. [6] In 648 the Arabs raided into Phrygia, and in 649 they launched their first maritime expedition against Crete. From there, in 663, he continued to Italy. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated. Exarch Olympius excused himself from this task, but his successor, Theodore I Calliopas, carried it out in 653. The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and... Notebook: Coin Portraying Emperor Constans or Emperor Constantius II... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography. With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries. The Chinese dynastic histories of the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang mention several embassies made by Fu lin (拂菻), which they equated with Daqin (the Roman Empire). The emperor considered moving his capital to his new home for greater safety, but this met obvious disapproval from the aristocracy at Constantinople with the Senate even forbidding any imperial family members from joining the emperor in Sicily. SH73336. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. While the Caliphate was busy deciding who should be the next caliph, Constans did not waste any time and invaded northern Greece. [12] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Home Crime Crime by century 7th-century crime 7th-century murdered monarchs Constans II. Stanford University Press. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. In 659 he campaigned far to the east, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Caliphate in Media. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Additionally the description : "A theme was a plot of land given to … Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. A major Arab offensive into Cilicia and Isauria in 650–651 forced the Emperor to enter into negotiations with Caliph Uthman's governor of Syria, Muawiyah. The primary sources seem to favor Heraclius. Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. Cheetham, Nicolas. [3] After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. When Heraclius died in 641 CE, he had two heirs who ruled as co-emperors: Heraklonas (whose mother was Martina) and Constantine III (whose mother was Heraclius’ first wife Eudokia). He attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but this provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme. Rumours spread that the Byzantines were suffering the wrath of God, angry at the emperor’s incestuous marriage to his own niece Martina. 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